Books

Abstract:

Identifies disease control priorities; patterns of dependence and the disease burden (mortality, morbidity, and societal economic costs); and effective interventions for illicit drug dependence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), looking specifically at cannabis, amphetamine, and opioid dependence. Illicit drug use contributes to premature mortality and morbidity on a global scale, and the economic costs are substantial. Multiple interventions have been shown to have an impact on illicit drug use and dependence, ranging from preventive interventions with young people to medication-assisted interventions with people who are opioid dependent. Since most of the research on drug dependence, its disease burden, and its societal harm has been conducted in high-income countries (HICs), three sets of issues must be examined to translate the findings into disease control priorities for LMICs: (1) country-specific variations in illicit drug use and disease burden; (2) countries’ health care infrastructure and capacity; and (3) varying cultural attitudes toward drug problems and treatments.

References

  • Allsop, D, J Copeland, N Lintzeris, A Dunlop, and M Montebello
    and others. 2014. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Nabiximols (Sativex®) as an Agonist Replacement Therapy during Cannabis Withdrawal.” JAMA Psychiatry 71 (3): 281–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Amato, L, S Minozzi, P P Pani, R Solimini, and S Vecchi
    and others. 2011. “Dopamine Agonists for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12: CD003352. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.Cd003352.pub3. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Anglin, M D
    1988. “The Efficacy of Civil Commitment in Treating Narcotic Drug Addiction.” In Compulsory Treatment of Drug Abuse: Research and Clinical Practice, edited by
    Leukefeld, C G and F M Tims
    8–34. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Google Scholar
  • APA (American Psychiatric Association)
    . 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed., text revision. Washington, DC: APA. Google Scholar
  • APA (American Psychiatric Association)
    . 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: APA. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Babor, T F, J Caulkins, G Edwards, B Fischer, and D Foxcroft
    and others, eds. 2010. Drug Policy and the Public Good. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Baker, A, N K Lee, M Claire, T J Lewin, and T Grant
    and others. 2005. “Brief Cognitive Behavioural Interventions for Regular Amphetamine Users: A Step in the Right Direction.” Addiction 100 (3): 367–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ball, J C, J W Shaffer, and D N Nurco
    . 1983. “The Day-to-Day Criminality of Heroin Addicts in Baltimore—A Study in the Continuity of Offence Rates.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 12: (2): 119–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Behrendt, S, H U Wittchen, M Hofler, R Lieb, and K Beesdo
    . 2009. “Transitions from First Substance Use to Substance Use Disorders in Adolescence: Is Early Onset Associated with a Rapid Escalation?Drug and Alcohol Dependence 99 (1–3): 68–78. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.06.014. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Bloomfield, M A, C J Morgan, A Egerton, S Kapur, and H V Curran
    and others. 2013. “Dopaminergic Function in Cannabis Users and Its Relationship to Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Symptoms.” Biological Psychiatry 75 (6): 470–78. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.027. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Blow, F C, M A Walton, K L Barry, R L Murray, and R M Cunningham
    , and others. 2011. “Alcohol and Drug Use among Patients Presenting to an Inner-City Emergency Department: A Latent Class Analysis.” Addict Behaviors 36 (8): 793–800. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.028. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Brensilver, M, K G Heinzerling, and S Shoptaw
    . 2013. “Pharmacotherapy of Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Dependence: An Update.” Drug and Alcohol Review 32 (5): 449–60. doi:10.1111/dar.12048. Google Scholar
  • Brown, R T
    2010. “Systematic Review of the Impact of Adult Drug-Treatment Courts.” Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 155 (6): 263–74. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2010.03.001. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Budney, A J, B A Moore, H L Rocha, and S T Higgins
    . 2006. “Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 (2): 307. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Carpenter, K M, D McDowell, D J Brooks, W Y Cheng, and F R Levin
    . 2009. “A Preliminary Trial: Double-Blind Comparison of Nefazodone, Bupropion-SR, and Placebo in the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence.” American Journal on Addictions 18 (1): 53–64. doi:10.1080/10550490802408936. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Caulkins, J P, R L Pacula, S M Paddock, and J Chiesa
    . 2002. School-Based Drug Prevention: What Kind of Drug Use Does It Prevent? Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Google Scholar
  • Caulkins, J P, C P Rydell, S S Everingham, J Chiesa, and S Bushway
    . 1999. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Program. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
    . 2012. “Community-Based Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs Providing Naloxone—United States, 2010.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 61 (6): 101. Google Scholar
  • Cohen, J
    2003. “The Next Frontier for HIV/AIDS: Myanmar.” Science 301 (5640): 1650–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Collins, D and H Lapsley
    . 2007. “The Costs of Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use to Australian Society in 2004/05.” National Drug Strategy Monograph. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. Google Scholar
  • Compton, W M and N D Volkow
    . 2006. “Major Increases in Opioid Analgesic Abuse in the United States: Concerns and Strategies.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 81 (2): 103–7. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cunningham, J K, L -M Liu, and R C Callaghan
    . 2013. “Essential (‘Precursor’) Chemical Control for Heroin: Impact of Acetic Anhydride Regulation on US Heroin Availability.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 133 (2): 520–28. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.07.014. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Danovitch, I and D A Gorelick
    . 2012. “State of the Art Treatments for Cannabis Dependence.” Psychiatric Clinics of North America 35 (2): 309–26. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2012.03.003. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Darke, S, S Kaye, R McKetin, and J Duflou
    . 2008. “Major Physical and Psychological Harms of Methamphetamine Use.” Drug and Alcohol Review 27 253–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dave, D M
    2006. “The Effects of Cocaine and Heroin Price on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits.” Journal of Health Economics 25 311–33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Day, C, L Degenhardt, S Gilmour, and W Hall
    . 2004. “Effects of Reduction in Heroin Supply on Injecting Drug Use: Analysis of Data from Needle and Syringe Programmes.” British Medical Journal 329 (7463): 428–29. doi:10.1136/bmj.38201.410255.55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, A Baxter, Y -Y Lee, W Hall, and G E Sara
    , and others. 2014. “The Epidemiology and Burden of Disease Attributable to Psychostimulant Dependence: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 137 (4): 36–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, C Bucello, B Calabria, P Nelson, and A Roberts
    and others. 2011. “What Data Are Available on the Extent of Illicit Drug Use and Dependence Globally? Results of Four Systematic Reviews.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117 85–101. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.032. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, C Bucello, B Mathers, C Briegleb, and H Ali
    and others. 2011. “Mortality among Problematic Users of Heroin and Other Illicit Opioids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.” Addiction 106 (1): 32–51. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03140.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, F Charlson, B Mathers, W Hall, and A Flaxman
    and others. 2014. “The Global Epidemiology and Burden of Disease Attributable to Opioid Dependence: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.” Addiction 109 (8): 1320–33. doi:10.1111/add.12551. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, L Dierker, W Chiu, M Medina-Mora, and Y Neumark
    and others. 2010. “Evaluating the Drug Use ‘Gateway’ Theory Using Cross-National Data: Consistency and Associations of the Order of Initiation of Drug Use among Participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 108 (1): 84–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L and W Hall
    . 2012. “Extent of Illicit Drug Use and Dependence, and Their Contribution to the Global Burden of Disease.” The Lancet 379 (9810): 55–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, S Larney, N Gisev, J Trevena, and J Kimber
    and others. 2013. “Engagement with the Criminal Justice System among Opioid Dependent People: Retrospective Cohort Study.” Addiction 108 (12): 2152–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, S Larney, J Kimber, N Gisev, and M Farrell
    and others. 2014. “The Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy on Mortality Post-Release from Prison: Retrospective Data Linkage Study.” Addiction 109 (8): 1306–17. doi:10.1111/add.12536. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Degenhardt, L, H A Whiteford, A J Ferrari, A J Baxter, and F J Charlson
    , and others. 2013. “Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Illicit Drug Use and Dependence: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.” The Lancet 382 (9904): 1564–74. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)61530-5. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dole, V P, J W Robinson, J Orraca, E Towns, and P Searcy
    and others. 1969. “Methadone Treatment of Randomly Selected Criminal Addicts.” The New England Journal of Medicine 280 (25): 1372–75. doi:10.1056/nejm196906192802502. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Doran, C M
    2005. “Buprenorphine, Buprenorphine/Naloxone and Methadone Maintenance: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.” Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research 5 (5): 583–91. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737167.5.5.583. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • DuPont, R L, A T McLellan, W L White, L J Merlo, and M S Gold
    . 2009. “Setting the Standard for Recovery: Physicians’ Health Programs.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36 (2): 159–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ennett, S T, N S Tobler, C L Ringwalt, and R L Flewelling
    . 1994. “How Effective Is Drug Abuse Resistance Education? A Meta-Analysis of Project DARE Outcome Evaluations.” American Journal of Public Health 84 (9): 1394–401. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Faggiano, F, S Minozzi, E Versino, and D Buscemi
    . 2014. “Universal School-Based Prevention for Illicit Drug Use.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) 12: CD003020. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003020.pub3. Google Scholar
  • Farrell, M, J Strang, and H Stover
    . 2010. “Hepatitis B Vaccination in Prisons: A Much-Needed Targeted Universal Intervention.” Addiction 105 (2): 189–90. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02781.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ferri, M, E Allara, A Bo, A Gasparrini, and F Faggiano
    . 2013. “Media Campaigns for the Prevention of Illicit Drug Use in Young People.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) 6: CD009287. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009287.pub2. Google Scholar
  • Ferri, M, M Davoli, and C A Perucci
    . 2011. “Heroin Maintenance for Chronic Heroin-Dependent Individuals.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD003410. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.Cd003410.pub4. Google Scholar
  • Fischer, B, M Bibby, and M Bouchard
    . 2010. “Non-Medical Use and Diversion of Psychotropic Prescription Drugs in North America: A Review of Sourcing Routes and Control Measures.” Addiction 105 2062–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Florez-Salamanca, L, R Secades-Villa, D S Hasin, L Cottler, and S Wang
    and others. 2013. “Probability and Predictors of Transition from Abuse to Dependence on Alcohol, Cannabis, and Cocaine: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.” The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 39 (3): 168–79. doi:10.3109/00952990.2013.772618. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Freimuth, M
    2000. “Integrating Group Psychotherapy and 12-Step Work: A Collaborative Approach.” International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 50 (3): 297–314. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Galloway, G P, R Buscemi, J R Coyle, K Flower, and J D Siegrist
    , and others. 2011. “A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Sustained-Release Dextroamphetamine for Treatment of Methamphetamine Addiction.” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 89 (2): 276–82. doi:10.1038/clpt.2010.307. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gerstein, D R and H Harwood
    eds. 1990. Treating Drug Problems. Volume 1, A Study of Effectiveness and Financing of Public and Private Drug Treatment Systems. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Google Scholar
  • Gibson, A E, C M Doran, J R Bell, A Ryan, and N Lintzeris
    . 2003. “A Comparison of Buprenorphine Treatment in Clinic and Primary Care Settings: A Randomised Trial.” Medical Journal of Australia 179 (1): 38–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gossop, M, D Stewart, and J Marsden
    . 2008. “Attendance at Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous Meetings, Frequency of Attendance and Substance Use Outcomes after Residential Treatment for Drug Dependence: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study.” Addiction 103 (1): 119–25. Google Scholar
  • Gowing, L R, M Hickman, and L Degenhardt
    . 2013. “Mitigating the Risk of HIV Infection with Opioid Substitution Treatment.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 91 (2): 148–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hall, W, C Doran, L Degenhardt, and D Shepard
    . 2006. “Illicit Opiate Abuse.” In Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd ed., edited by
    Jamison, D T, J G Breman, A R Measham, G Alleyne, M Claeson, D B Evans, P Jha, A Mills, and P Musgrove
    907–32. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Hall, W, M Farrell, and A Carter
    . 2014. “Compulsory Treatment of Addiction in the Patient’s Best Interests: More Rigorous Evaluations Are Essential.” Drug and Alcohol Review 33 (3): 268–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Haney, M, C L Hart, S K Vosburg, S D Comer, and S C Reed
    , and others. 2008. “Effects of THC and Lofexidine in a Human Laboratory Model of Marijuana Withdrawal and Relapse.” Psychopharmacology 197 (1): 157–68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Haney, M, C L Hart, S K Vosburg, J Nasser, and A Bennett
    and others. 2004. “Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex.” Neuropsychopharmacology 29 (1): 158–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Harris, A H, E Gospodarevskaya, and A J Ritter
    . 2005. “A Randomised Trial of the Cost Effectiveness of Buprenorphine as an Alternative to Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Heroin Dependence in a Primary Care Setting.” Pharmacoeconomics 23 (1): 77–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hedrich, D, T Kerr, and F Dubois-Arber
    . 2010. “Drug Consumption Facilities in Europe and Beyond.” In Harm Reduction: Evidence, Impacts and Challenges, edited by
    Rhodes, T and D Hedrich
    . Scientific Monograph Series 10. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Google Scholar
  • Hornik, R, L Jacobsohn, R Orwin, A Piesse, and G Kalton
    . 2008. “Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on Youths.” American Journal of Public Health 98 (12): 2229. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Horvath, A T
    2000. “Smart Recovery®: Addiction Recovery Support from a Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective.” Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 18 (3): 181–91. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Humeniuk, R, R Ali, T Babor, M L O Souza Formigoni, and R B de Lacerda
    , and others. 2012. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Intervention for Illicit Drugs Linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Clients Recruited from Primary Health Care Settings in Four Countries.” Addiction 107 (5): 957–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • INCB (International Narcotics Control Board)
    . 2014. “Precursor Chemicals Frequently Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.” International Narcotics Control Board. Vienna: United Nations. Google Scholar
  • Inciardi, J, H L Surratt, S Kurtz, and T J Cicero
    . 2007. “Mechanisms of Prescription Drug Diversion among Drug-Involved Club- and Street-Based Populations.” Pain Medicine 8 171–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kellam, S G, J Reid, and R L Balster
    . 2008. “Effects of a Universal Classroom Behavior Program in First and Second Grades on Young Adult Outcomes.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 95 (Suppl. 1): S5–S28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kerr, T, J Kimber, K DeBeck, and E Wood
    . 2007. “The Role of Safer Injection Facilities in the Response to HIV/AIDS among Injection Drug Users.” Current HIV/AIDS Reports 4 (4): 158–64. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kimber, J, N Palmateer, S Hutchinson, M Hickman, D Goldberg, and T Rhodes
    . 2010. “Harm Reduction among Injecting Drug Users—Evidence of Effectiveness.” In Harm Reduction: Evidence, Impacts and Challenges, edited by
    Rhodes, T and D Hedrich
    chapter 5. Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Google Scholar
  • Klag, S, F O’Callaghan, and P Creed
    . 2005. “The Use of Legal Coercion in the Treatment of Substance Abusers: An Overview and Critical Analysis of Thirty Years of Research.” Substance Use and Misuse 40 (12): 1777–95. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kleiman, M A R
    . 2009. When Brute Force Fails: Strategy for Crime Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kumaranayake, L, P Vickerman, D Walker, S Samoshkin, and V Romantzov
    and others. 2004. “The Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Preventive Measures among Injecting Drug Users in Svetlogorsk, Belarus.” Addiction 99 (12): 1565–76. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00899.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kuziemko, I and S D Levitt
    . 2004. “An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders.” Journal of Public Economics 88 2043–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Larney, S, N Gisev, M Farrell, T Dobbins, and J Kimber
    and others. 2014. “Opioid Substitution Therapy as a Strategy to Reduce Deaths in Prison: Retrospective Cohort Study.” BMJ Open 4 (e004666). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004666. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Larney, S, L Gowing, R P Mattick, M Farrell, and W Hall
    and others. 2014. “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Naltrexone Implants for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence.” Drug and Alcohol Review 33 (2): 115–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Leshner, A I
    1997. “Addiction Is a Brain Disease, and It Matters.” Science 278 (5335): 45–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Littlejohn, C, A Baldacchino, F Schifano, and P Deluca
    . 2005. “Internet Pharmacies and Online Prescription Drug Sales: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 12 75–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lobmaier, P, H Kornor, N Kunoe, and A Bjørndal
    . 2008. “Sustained-Release Naltrexone for Opioid Dependence.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD006140. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006140.pub2. Google Scholar
  • Longo, M, W Wickes, M Smout, S Harrison, and S Cahill
    and others. 2010. “Randomized Controlled Trial of Dexamphetamine Maintenance for the Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence.” Addiction 105 (1): 146–54. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02717.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lopez-Quintero, C, D S Hasin, J P de Los Cobos, A Pines, and S Wang
    and others. 2011. “Probability and Predictors of Remission from Life-Time Nicotine, Alcohol, Cannabis or Cocaine Dependence: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.” Addiction 106 (3): 657–69. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03194.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Manski, C F, J V Pepper, and C V Petrie
    . 2001. Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Google Scholar
  • Mathers, B M, L Degenhardt, H Ali, L Wiessing, and M Hickman
    and others. 2010. “HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care Services for People Who Inject Drugs: A Systematic Review of Global, Regional, and National Coverage.” The Lancet 375 (9719): 1014–28. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60232-2. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mattick, R P, C Breen, J Kimber, and M Davoli
    . 2014. “Buprenorphine Maintenance versus Placebo or Methadone Maintenance for Opioid Dependence.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2: CD002207. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002207.pub4. Google Scholar
  • Mattick, R P and W Hall
    . 1996. “Are Detoxification Programmes Effective?The Lancet 347 (8994): 97–100. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • McGregor, C, R Ali, P Christie, and S Darke
    . 2001. “Overdose among Heroin Users: Evaluation of an Intervention in South Australia.” Addiction Research and Theory 9 (5): 481–501. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Minozzi, S, L Amato, S Vecchi, M Davoli, and U Kirchmayer
    and others. 2011. “Oral Naltrexone Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Dependence.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD001333. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001333.pub4. Google Scholar
  • MSIC Evaluation Committee
    . 2003. Final Report of the Evaluation of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Sydney: University of New South Wales. Google Scholar
  • Mugunthan, K, T McGuire, and P Glasziou
    . 2011. “Minimal Interventions to Decrease Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of General Practice 61 (590): e573–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Nelson, P K, B M Mathers, B Cowie, H Hagan, and D Des Jarlais
    and others. 2011. “Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in People Who Inject Drugs: Results of Systematic Reviews.” The Lancet 378 (9791): 571–83. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61097-0. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)
    . 2007. Drug Misuse: Psychosocial Interventions (CG51—Clinical Guideline 51). London: NICE. Google Scholar
  • ONDCP (Office of National Drug Control Policy)
    . 2008. Efforts to Control Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. Google Scholar
  • Perry, A E, Z Darwin, C Godfrey, C McDougall, and J Lunn
    and others. 2009. “The Effectiveness of Interventions for Drug-Using Offenders in the Courts, Secure Establishments and the Community: A Systematic Review.” Substance Use and Misuse 44 (3): 374–400. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826080802347560. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Petry, N M, J Tedford, M Austin, C Nich, and K M Carroll
    , and others. 2004. “Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Treating Cocaine Users: How Low Can We Go, and With Whom?Addiction 99 (3): 349–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Phan, H M, K Yoshizuka, D J Murry, and P J Perry
    . 2012. “Drug Testing in the Workplace.” Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy 32 (7): 649–56. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1875-9114.2011.01089.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Rajasingham, R, M J Mimiaga, J M White, M M Pinkston, and R P Baden
    , and others. 2012. “A Systematic Review of Behavioral and Treatment Outcome Studies among HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Abuse Crystal Methamphetamine.” AIDS Patient Care STDS 26 (1): 36–52. doi:10.1089/apc.2011.0153. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Restrepo, C S, C A Rojas, S Martinez, R Riascos, and A Marmol-Velez
    and others. 2009. “Cardiovascular Complications of Cocaine: Imaging Findings.” Emergency Radiology 16 (1): 11–19. doi:10.1007/s10140-008-0762-x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Room, R, B Fischer, W Hall, S Lenton, and P Reuter
    . 2010. Cannabis Policy: Moving beyond Stalemate. Oxford U. K.: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Schoenwald, S, D Ward, S Henggeler, S Pickrel, and H Patel
    . 1996. “Multisystemic Therapy Treatment of Substance Abusing or Dependent Adolescent Offenders: Costs of Reducing Incarceration, Inpatient, and Residential Placement.” Journal of Child and Family Studies 5 (4): 431–44. doi:10.1007/BF02233864. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Shanahan, M, L Degenhardt, and W Hall
    . 2004. Estimating the Economic Consequences of Reduced Heroin Supply in Australia 2000–2003. NDARC Technical Report 195. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Google Scholar
  • Shek, D T L
    . 2010. “School Drug Testing: A Critical Review of the Literature.” The Scientific World Journal 10 356–65. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2010.31. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Simoens, S, A Ludbrook, C Matheson, and C Bond
    . 2006. “Pharmaco-Economics of Community Maintenance for Opiate Dependence: A Review of Evidence and Methodology.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 84 (1): 28–39. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.12.009. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, L A, S Gates, and D Foxcroft
    . 2006. “Therapeutic Communities for Substance Related Disorder.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (1): CD005338. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005338.pub2. Google Scholar
  • Stenbacka, M, A Leifman, and A Romelsjo
    . 2010. “Mortality and Cause of Death among 1,705 Illicit Drug Users: A 37-Year Follow-Up.” Drug and Alcohol Review 29 (1): 21–27. doi:10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00075.x. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Strang, J, T Babor, J Caulkins, B Fischer, and D Foxcroft
    and others. 2012. “Drug Policy and the Public Good: Evidence for Effective Interventions.” The Lancet 379 (9810): 71–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Szasz, T
    2003. Ceremonial Chemistry: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs, Addicts, and Pushers. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Google Scholar
  • Tobin, K E, S G Sherman, P Beilenson, C Welsh, and C A Latkin
    . 2009. “Evaluation of the Staying Alive Programme: Training Injection Drug Users to Properly Administer Naloxone and Save Lives.” International Journal of Drug Policy 20 (2): 131–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • UNDCP (United Nations International Drug Control Programme)
    . 1998. Economic and Social Consequences of Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. Vienna: UNDCP. Google Scholar
  • United Nations General Assembly
    . 1972. 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Google Scholar
  • UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)
    . 2009. Drug Use in Afghanistan: 2009 Survey. Vienna: UNODC. Google Scholar
  • UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)
    . 2013. World Drug Report 2013. Vienna: United Nations. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    . 2012. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Google Scholar
  • Vanderplasschen, W, K Colpaert, M Autrique, R C Rapp, and S Pearce
    and others. 2013. “Therapeutic Communities for Addictions: A Review of Their Effectiveness from a Recovery-Oriented Perspective.” The Scientific World Journal 2013 (427817). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/427817. Google Scholar
  • Vandrey, R, M L Stitzer, M Z Mintzer, M A Huestis, and J A Murray
    , and others. 2013. “The Dose Effects of Short-Term Dronabinol (Oral THC) Maintenance in Daily Cannabis Users.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 128 (1–2):64–70. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.001. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Volkow, N D, G J Wang, J S Fowler, F Telang, and M Jayne
    and others. 2007. “Stimulant-Induced Enhanced Sexual Desire as a Potential Contributing Factor in HIV Transmission.” The American Journal of Psychiatry 164 (1): 157–60. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.1.157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wagner, K D, T W Valente, M Casanova, S M Partovi, and B M Mendenhall
    , and others. 2010. “Evaluation of an Overdose Prevention and Response Training Programme for Injection Drug Users in the Skid Row Area of Los Angeles, CA.” International Journal of Drug Policy 21 (3): 186–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wakefield, M A, B Loken, and R C Hornik
    . 2010. “Use of Mass Media Campaigns to Change Health Behaviour. (review). (104 refs.).” The Lancet 376 (9748): 1261–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Warner-Smith, M, S Darke, M Lynskey, and W Hall
    . 2001. “Heroin Overdose: Causes and Consequences.” Addiction 96 (8): 1113–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Weaver, T, N Metrebian, J Hellier, S Pilling, and V Charles
    and others. 2014. “Use of Contingency Management Incentives to Improve Completion of Hepatitis B Vaccination in People Undergoing Treatment for Heroin Dependence: A Cluster Randomised Trial.” The Lancet 384 153–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 1993. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva: WHO. Google Scholar
  • Winstock, A R, T Lea, and J Copeland
    . 2009. “Lithium Carbonate in the Management of Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans: An Open-Label Study.” Journal of Psychopharmacology 23 (1): 84–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wu, L T, G E Woody, C Yang, P Mannelli, and D G Blazer
    . 2011. “Differences in Onset and Abuse/Dependence Episodes between Prescription Opioids and Heroin: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.” Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2011 (2): 77–88. doi:10.2147/sar.s18969. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Young, D, R Fluellen, and S Belenko
    . 2004. “Criminal Recidivism in Three Models of Mandatory Drug Treatment.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 27 (4): 313–23. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2004.08.007. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Young, M M, A Stevens, J Galipeau, T Pirie, and C Garritty
    and others. 2014. “Effectiveness of Brief Interventions as Part of the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Model for Reducing the Nonmedical Use of Psychoactive Substances: A Systematic Review.” Systematic Reviews 3: 50. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-50. Google Scholar

Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus) on the World Bank Group COVID-19 Hub.

Find the latest eLibrary content related to COVID-19 (coronavirus) here.