Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus) on the World Bank Group COVID-19 Hub.

Find the latest eLibrary content related to COVID-19 (coronavirus) here.

Books

Abstract:

Explains why rates of occupation injuries have increased in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to the export of labor-intensive and more dangerous industrial production to countries with lower wages and less stringent working regulations. In high-income countries (HICs) the popularity of temporary work and forms of flexible employment contributes to more precarious work environments since occupational safety and health (OSH) laws may not apply. Most research about workplace hazards has occurred in HICs and concerns physical exposures, psychosocial stressors, and work organization, and evidence from LMICs suggests similar findings. Globalization plays a role too since countries undergoing rapid industrialization lack OSH training and education and often rely on hiring migrants without previous experience in industrial settings. Viable interventions vary from country to country, and the cost associated with engineering and personal protection may preclude their implementation. Legislation, regulation, and enforcement form the cornerstone for workplace safety and health risk management. Specific interventions are identified for the industries of health care, construction, manufacturing, and agriculture.

References

  • Abbas, M A, L A Fiala, A G Abdel Rahman, and A E Fahim
    2010. “Epidemiology of Workplace Violence against Nursing Staff in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.” Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85 (1–2):29–43. Google Scholar
  • Adepoju, A
    2005. “Migration in West Africa.” Paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration, Human Resources Development Centre, Lagos, September. Google Scholar
  • Aderaw, Z, D Engdaw, and T Tadesse
    . 2011. “Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.” Journal of Tropical Medicine 2: 657275. Google Scholar
  • Adler-Milstein, S, J Champagne, and T Haas
    2014. “The Right to Organize, Living Wage, and Real Change for Garment Workers.” In Lessons for Social Change in the Global Economy, edited by
    Garwood, S, S Croeser, and C Yakinthou
    13–36. Plymouth, U.K.: Lexington Books. Google Scholar
  • Adogu, P O, A. L Ilika, and A L Asuzu
    2009. “Predictors of Road Traffic Accident, Road Traffic Injury, and Death among Commercial Motorcyclists in an Urban Area of Nigeria.” Nigerian Journal of Medicine 18 (4): 393–97. Google Scholar
  • Ahamed, F
    2013. “Improving Social Compliance in Bangladesh’s Ready-Made Garment Industry.” Labour and Management in Development 13 1–26. Google Scholar
  • Ahasan, R
    2003. “Education and Training in Developing Countries.” Work Study 52 (6): 290–96. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ahmed, E
    2008. “The Risk Factors for Machine Injury of the Upper Limb Case-Crossover Study in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” Ethiopian Medical Journal 46 (2): 163–72. Google Scholar
  • Ajayi, I A, A O Adeoye, C O Bekibele, O H Onakpoya, and O J Omotoye
    2011. “Awareness and Utilization of Protective Eye Device among Welders in a Southwestern Nigeria Community.” Annals of African Medicine 10 (4): 294–99. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Akhter, S, A Salahuddin, M Iqbal, A Malek, and N Jahan
    2010. “Health and Occupational Safety for Female Workforce of Garment Industries in Bangladesh.” Journal of Mechanical Engineering 41 (1): 65–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Alavosius, M, J Getting, J Dagen, W Newsome, and B Hopkins
    2009. “Use of a Cooperative to Interlock Contingencies and Balance the Commonwealth.” Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 29 (2): 193–211. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Alfers, L
    2009. Occupational Health and Safety for Informal Workers in Ghana: A Case Study of Market and Street Traders in Accra. Durban, South Africa: School of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal. Google Scholar
  • Alfers, L
    . 2011. Occupational Health and Safety and Domestic Work: A Synthesis of Research Findings from Brazil and Tanzania. London: Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO). Google Scholar
  • Alfers, L and R Abban
    2011. Occupational Health and Safety for Indigenous Caterers in Accra, Ghana. London: WIEGO. Google Scholar
  • Alonso Castillo, M M, F Y Musayon Oblitas, H M David, and M V Gomez Meza
    . 2006. “Drug Consumption and Occupational Violence in Working Women, a Multicenter Study: Mexico, Peru, Brazil.” Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 14 (2): 155–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Amengual, M
    2011. “Enforcement without Autonomy: The Politics of Labor and Environmental Regulation in Argentina.” PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Google Scholar
  • Amick III, B C, S Brewer, J M Tullar, D Van Eerd, and D C Cole
    others. 2009. “Musculoskeletal Disorders.” Professional Safety 54 (3): 24–28. Google Scholar
  • Amick III, B C, C Kennedy, J Dennerlein, S Brewer, and S Catli
    others. 2010. “Systematic Review of the Role of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions in the Prevention of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms, Signs, Disorders, Injuries, Claims, and Lost Time.” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 20 (2): 127–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Anderson, V P, P A Schulte, J Sestito, H Linn, and L S Nguyen
    2010. “Occupational Fatalities, Injuries, Illnesses, and Related Economic Loss in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53 (7): 673–85. Google Scholar
  • Apple
    . 2014. “Supplier Responsibility 2014 Progress Report.” Apple, Cupertino, CA. Google Scholar
  • Apramian, S and M Cullen
    2015. M.R. (unpublished review) Google Scholar
  • Azodo, C C, E B Ezeja, and E E Ehikhamenor
    2011. “Occupational Violence against Dental Professionals in Southern Nigeria.” African Health Sciences 11 (3): 486–92. Google Scholar
  • Baker, T, E Lugazia, J Eriksen, V Mwafongo, and L Irestedt
    others. 2013. “Emergency and Critical Care Services in Tanzania: A Survey of Ten Hospitals.” BMC Health Services Research 13: 140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Baldwin, R
    2011. “Trade and Industrialisation after Globalisation’s 2nd Unbundling: How Building and Joining a Supply Chain Are Different and Why It Matters.” Working Paper 17716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Barboza, D, P Lattman, and C Rampell
    2012. “How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work.” New York Times, January 21. Google Scholar
  • Becker, P, M Fullen, M Akladios, and G Hobbs
    2001. “Prevention of Construction Falls by Organizational Intervention.” Injury Prevention 7 (Suppl 1): i64–67. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Bell, J L, J W Collins, L Wolf, R Grönqvist, and S Chiou
    others. 2008. “Evaluation of a Comprehensive Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention Programme for Hospital Employees.” Ergonomics 51 (12): 1906–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Benavides, F G, J Benach, C Muntaner, G L Delclos, and N Catot
    others. 2006. “Associations between Temporary Employment and Occupational Injury: What Are the Mechanisms?Occupational and Environmental Medicine 63 (6): 416–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Bentley, T
    2009. “The Role of Latent and Active Failures in Workplace Slips, Trips, and Falls: An Information Processing Approach.” Applied Ergonomics 40 (2): 175–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Berecki-Gisolf, J, B Tawatsupa, R McClure, and S A Seubsman
    others. 2013. “Determinants of Workplace Injury among Thai Cohort Study Participants.” BMJ Open 3 (7): e003079. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Binch, S and J L Bell
    2007. The Cost of Non-Injury Accidents: Scoping Study. Research Report RR585. Suffolk, U.K.: Health and Safety Executive. Google Scholar
  • BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    . 2013. “Workplace Injuries and Illnesses, 2012.” Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    . 2014. “Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2013.” Bureau of Labor Statistics U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • Bodner, T, M Kraner, B Bradford, L Hammer, and D Truxillo
    2014. “Safety, Health, and Well-Being of Municipal Utility and Construction Workers.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 56 (7): 771–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Bongers, P M, S Ijmker, S van den Heuvel, and B M Blatter
    2006. “Epidemiology of Work-Related Neck and Upper-Limb Problems: Psychosocial and Personal Risk Factors (Part I) and Effective Interventions from a Bio Behavioural Perspective (Part II).” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 16 (3): 272–95. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Breslin, F C
    2008. “Educational Status and Work Injury among Young People: Refining the Targeting of Prevention Resources.” Canadian Journal of Public Health 99 (2): 121–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Breslin, F C, D Day, E Tompa, E Irvin, and S Bhattacharyya
    others. 2007. “Non-Agricultural Work Injuries among Youth: A Systematic Review.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32 (2): 151–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Breslin, F C and P Smith
    2005. “Age-Related Differences in Work Injuries: A Multivariate, Population-Based Study.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 48 (1): 50–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Breslin, F C and P Smith
    . 2006. “Trial by Fire: A Multivariate Examination of the Relation between Job Tenure and Work Injuries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 63 (1): 27–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Breslin, F C, P. M Smith, and I Moore
    2011. “Examining the Decline in Lost-Time Claim Rates across Age Groups in Ontario between 1991 and 2007.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68 (11): 813–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Broberg, O, V Andersen, and R Seim
    2011. “Participatory Ergonomics in Design Processes: The Role of Boundary Objects.” Applied Ergonomics 42 (3): 464–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Brown, G
    2007. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Brings Limited Progress on Workplace Safety in Global Supply Chain.” Occupational Hazards 69 16–21. Google Scholar
  • Brown, G
    . 2009. “Global Electronics Industry: Poster Child of 21st Century Sweatshops and Despoiler.” EHSToday, September 1. Google Scholar
  • Brown, G
    . 2010. “Fashion Kills: Industrial Manslaughter in the Global Supply Chain.” EHSToday, September 1. Google Scholar
  • Brown, J G, A Trinkoff, K Rempher, K McPhaul, and B Brady
    others. 2005. “Nurses’ Inclination to Report Work-Related Injuries: Organizational, Work-Group, and Individual Factors Associated with Reporting.” AAOHN Journal 53 (5): 213–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Buhlebenlosi, F, N Sibanda, P Chaurura, and O Chiwara
    2013. “Occupational Safety in the Urban Informal Sector of Gaborone, Botswana: A Situational Analysis.” International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 2 (12): 293. Google Scholar
  • Burke, M J, S A Sarpy, K Smith-Crowe, S Chan-Serafin, and R O Salvador
    others. 2006. “Relative Effectiveness of Worker Safety and Health Training Methods.” American Journal of Public Health 96 (2): 315–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Burke, M J, M L Scheuer, and R J Meredith
    2007. “A Dialogical Approach to Skill Development: The Case of Safety Skills.” Human Resource Management Review 17 (2): 235–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Butollo, F, J Kusch, and T Laufer
    2009. “Buy It Fair: Guideline for Sustainable Procurement of Computers.” World Economy, Ecology, and Development (WEED); Local Governments for Sustainability Europasekretariat (ICLEI), Berlin; Freiburg. Google Scholar
  • Caldas, A, Z Aly, P S Capece, and Y Adam
    2003. “Violence against Personnel in Some Healthcare Units in Maputo City.” International Council of Nurses, International Labour Organization, and World Health Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Cameron, I and B Hare
    2008. “Planning Tools for Integrating Health and Safety in Construction.” Construction Management and Economics 26 (9): 899–909. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cantley, L F, D Galusha, M R Cullen, C Dixon-Ernst, and P R Rabinowitz
    others. 2015. “Association between Ambient Noise Exposure, Hearing Acuity, and Risk of Acute Occupational Injury.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 41 (1): 75–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cantley, L F, O. A Taiwo, D Galusha, R Barbour, and M D Slade
    others. 2014. “Effect of Systematic Ergonomic Hazard Identification and Control Implementation on Musculoskeletal Disorder and Injury Risk.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 40 (1): 57–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Carrivick, P J, A H Lee, K K Yau, and M R Stevenson
    2005. “Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Participatory Ergonomics Approach in Reducing the Risk and Severity of Injuries from Manual Handling.” Ergonomics 48 (8): 907–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
    . 2010. Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program. Atlanta, GA: CDC. Google Scholar
  • Chan, J, N Pun, and M Selden
    2013. “The Politics of Global Production: Apple, Foxconn, and China’s New Working Class.” New Technology, Work, and Employment 28 (2): 100–15. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Charmes, J
    2012. “The Informal Economy Worldwide: Trends and Characteristics.” Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research 6 (2): 103–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Chatterjee, S, D Agrawal, A Sahu, and D Dewangan
    2012. “Primary Prevention of Ocular Injury in Agricultural Workers with Safety Eye Wear.” Paper prepared for the Seventieth All India Ophthalmological Society Conference (AIOC), Cochin, India, February 2–5. Google Scholar
  • Chau, N, A Bhattacherjee, B M Kunar, and L Group
    2009. “Relationship between Job, Lifestyle, Age, and Occupational Injuries.” Occupational Medicine 59 (2): 114–19. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Chau, N, D Dehaene, L Benamghar, E Bourgkard, and J M Mur
    others. 2014. “Roles of Age, Length of Service, and Job in Work-Related Injury: A Prospective Study of 63,620 Person-Years in Female Workers.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57 (2): 172–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Chen, L, T Evans, S Anand, J I Boufford, and H Brown
    others. 2004. “Human Resources for Health: Overcoming the Crisis.” The Lancet 364 (9449): 1984–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Chen, W C, H G Hwu, S M Kung, H J Chiu, and J D Wang
    2008. “Prevalence and Determinants of Workplace Violence of Health Care Workers in a Psychiatric Hospital in Taiwan.” Journal of Occupational Health 50 (3): 288–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Chepkener, A C
    2013. “Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Eye Safety among Jua Kali Industry Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.” University of Nairobi. Google Scholar
  • Chimamise, C, N T Gombe, M Tshimanga, A Chadambuka, and G Shambira
    others. 2013. “Factors Associated with Severe Occupational Injuries at Mining Company in Zimbabwe, 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Pan African Medical Journal 14: 5. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Clarke, S
    2006. “The Relationship between Safety Climate and Safety Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review.” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 11 (4): 315–27. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Clarke, S
    . 2011. “Accident Proneness: Back in Vogue.” In Occupational Health and Safety, edited by
    Burke, R, C Cooper, and S Clarke
    95–118. London: Gower. Google Scholar
  • Collins, J W, J L Bell, and R Gronqvist
    2010. “Developing Evidence-Based Interventions to Address the Leading Causes of Workers’ Compensation among Healthcare Workers.” Rehabilitation Nursing Journal 35 (6): 225–35, 261. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Collins, J W, L Wolf, J L Bell, and B Evanoff
    2004. “An Evaluation of a ‘Best Practices’ Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention Program in Nursing Homes.” Injury Prevention 10 (4): 206–11. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Committee to Review the NIOSH Construction Research Program
    . 2008. Construction Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Google Scholar
  • Costa, G
    2010. “Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions.” Safety and Health at Work 1 (2): 112–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Costa, G, T Åkerstedt, F Nachreiner, F Baltieri, and J Carvalhais
    others. 2004. “Flexible Working Hours, Health, and Well-Being in Europe: Some Considerations from a SALTSA Project.” Chronobiology International 21 (6): 831–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Costa, G and L Di Milia
    . 2010. “Introductory Overview—19th International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time: Health and Well-Being in the 24-H Society.” Chronobiology International 27 (5): 889–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Couto, M T, S Lawoko, and L Svanstrom
    2009. “Exposure to Workplace Violence and Quality of Life among Drivers and Conductors in Maputo City, Mozambique.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 15 (3): 299–304. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • CPWR (Center for Construction Research and Training)
    . 2013. The Construction Chart Book: The U.S. Construction Industry and Its Workers. Silver Spring, MD: CPWR. Google Scholar
  • Cunningham, R N, C. D Simpson, and M C Keifer
    2012. “Hazards Faced by Informal Recyclers in the Squatter Communities of Asunción, Paraguay.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 18 (3): 181–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • da Costa, B R and E R Vieira
    2010. “Risk Factors for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review of Recent Longitudinal Studies.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53 (3): 285–323. Google Scholar
  • David, S and K Goel
    2001. “Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Sugarcane Crushers towards Hand Injury Prevention Strategies in India.” Injury Prevention 7 (4): 329–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • de Castro, A B, K Fujishiro, T Rue, E A Tagalog, and L P Samaco-Paquiz
    others. 2010. “Associations between Work Schedule Characteristics and Occupational Injury and Illness.” International Nursing Review 57 (2): 188–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dembe, A E, R Delbos, and J B Erickson
    2008. “The Effect of Occupation and Industry on the Injury Risks from Demanding Work Schedules.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50 (10): 1185–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dennerlein, J T, K Hopcia, G Sembajwe, C Kenwood, and A M Stoddard
    others. 2012. “Ergonomic Practices within Patient Care Units Are Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain and Limitations.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 55 (2): 107–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dianati, M, N M Ajorpaz, S Heidari-Moghaddam, and M Heidari
    2012. “Effect of a Face-to-Face Education Program Versus an Official-Imperative Method on Needle Disposal Behaviour of Nurses Working in Kashan, Iran.” Nursing and Midwifery Studies 1 (1): 3–6. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dorne, J L, G E Kass, L R Bordajandi, B Amzal, and U Bertelsen
    others. 2011. “Human Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals: Principles and Applications.” Metal Ions in Life Sciences 8 27–60. Google Scholar
  • Drebit, S, S Shajari, H Alamgir, S Yu, and D Keen
    2010. “Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Falls among Workers in the Healthcare Sector.” Ergonomics 53 (4): 525–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Driessen, M T, K I Proper, J R Anema, D L Knol, and P M Bongers
    others. 2011. “The Effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics to Prevent Low-Back and Neck Pain: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 37 (5): 383–93. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Dunser, M W, I Baelani, and L Ganbold
    2006. “A Review and Analysis of Intensive Care Medicine in the Least Developed Countries.” Critical Care Medicine 34 (4): 1234–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Eakin, J M, D Champoux, and E MacEachen
    2010. “Health and Safety in Small Workplaces: Refocusing Upstream.” Canadian Journal of Public Health 101: S29–33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ecorys
    . 2012. “EU SMEs in 2012: At the Crossroads.” Report prepared for the European Commission, Ecorys, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Google Scholar
  • Ehnes, H
    2012. “Improvement of National Reporting, Data Collection, and Analysis of Occupational Accidents and Diseases.” International Labour Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • El Ghaziri, M, S Zhu, J Lipscomb, and B A Smith
    2014. “Work Schedule and Client Characteristics Associated with Workplace Violence Experience among Nurses and Midwives in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 25 (Suppl 1): S79–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Eltschinger, C
    2007. Source Code China: The New Global Hub of IT Outsourcing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Google Scholar
  • EU-OSHA (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work)
    . n.d. “Case Studies: Driver Assistant System.” EU-OSHA, Luxembourg. http://archive.beswic.be/data/case-studies/driver-assistant-system/Driver-assistant-system.pdf. Google Scholar
  • EU-OSHA (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work)
    . n.d. “Safeguarding Europe’s Micro and Small Enterprises: The Development of the Online Interactive Risk Assessment Tool.” EU-OSHA, Luxembourg. http://www.oiraproject.eu. Google Scholar
  • EU-OSHA (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work)
    . 2007. Expert Forecast on Emerging Psychosocial Risks Related to Occupational Safety and Health. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Google Scholar
  • Eurofound
    . 2010. “European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS): 2010.” European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin. Google Scholar
  • Fabiano, B, F Currò, and R Pastorino
    2004. “A Study of the Relationship between Occupational Injuries and Firm Size and Type in the Italian Industry.” Safety Science 42 (7): 587–600. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Farrow, A and F Reynolds
    2012. “Health and Safety of the Older Worker.” Occupational Medicine 62 (1): 4–11. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Foley, M, Z J Fan, E Rauser, and B Silverstein
    2012. “The Impact of Regulatory Enforcement and Consultation Visits on Workers’ Compensation Claims, Incidence Rates, and Costs, 1999–2008.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 55 (11): 976–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Folkard, S and T Åkerstedt
    2004. “Trends in the Risk of Accidents and Injuries and Their Implications for Models of Fatigue and Performance.” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 75 (3): A161–67. Google Scholar
  • Folkard, S and D A Lombardi
    2006. “Modeling the Impact of the Components of Long Work Hours on Injuries and ‘Accidents.’American Journal of Industrial Medicine 49 (11): 953–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Folkard, S and P Tucker
    2003. “Shift Work, Safety, and Productivity.” Occupational Medicine 53 (2): 95–101. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Frank, A L, R McKnight, S R Kirkhorn, and P Gunderson
    2004. “Issues of Agricultural Safety and Health.” Annual Review of Public Health 25 (1): 225–45. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Frenkel, S J
    2001. “Globalization, Athletic Footwear Commodity Chains, and Employment Relations in China.” Organization Studies 22 (4): 531–62. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Friedman, L S and L Forst
    2007. “The Impact of OSHA Recordkeeping Regulation Changes on Occupational Injury and Illness Trends in the U.S.: A Time-Series Analysis.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 64 (7): 454–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Fu, C, M Zhu, T S Yu, and Y He
    2013. “Effectiveness of Participatory Training on Improving Occupational Health in Small and Medium Enterprises in China.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 19 (2): 85–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Fujishiro, K, J L Weaver, C A Heaney, C A Hamrick, and W S Marras
    2005. “The Effect of Ergonomic Interventions in Healthcare Facilities on Musculoskeletal Disorders.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 48 (5): 338–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gander, P, L Hartley, D Powell, P Cabon, and E Hitchcock
    others. 2011. “Fatigue Risk Management: Organizational Factors at the Regulatory and Industry/Company Level.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2): 573–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gangwar, M and P Goodrum
    2005. “The Effect of Time on Safety Incentive Programs in the U.S. Construction Industry.” Construction Management and Economics 23 (8): 851–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • GAO (Government Accountability Office)
    . 2012. “Workplace Safety and Health: Better Guidance Needed on Safety Incentive Programs.” U.S. GAO, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • Gap
    . 2012. “Gap Inc. 2011/2012 Social and Environmental Responsibility Report.” Gap Inc., San Francisco, CA. Google Scholar
  • Garg, A and B Owen
    1992. “Reducing Back Stress to Nursing Personnel: An Ergonomic Intervention in a Nursing Home.” Ergonomics 35 (11): 1353–75. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gervais, R L, Z Pawlowska, A Kouvonen, M Karanika-Murray, and K Van den Broek
    others. 2009. “Occupational Safety and Health and Economic Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Review.” Working Environment Information Working Paper, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Bilbao, Spain. Google Scholar
  • Ghaffari, M, A Alipour, A A Farshad, I Jensen, and M Josephson
    others. 2008. “Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.” Occupational Medicine 58 (5): 341–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Girard, S A, M Picard, A C Davis, M Simard, and R Larocque
    others. 2009. “Multiple Work-Related Accidents: Tracing the Role of Hearing Status and Noise Exposure.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 66 (5): 319–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Glasscock, D J, K Rasmussen, O Carstensen, and O N Hansen
    2006. “Psychosocial Factors and Safety Behaviour as Predictors of Accidental Work Injuries in Farming.” Work and Stress 20 (2): 173–89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gonese, E, R Matchaba-Hove, G Chirimumba, Z Hwalima, and J Chirenda
    others. 2006. “Occupational Injuries among Workers in the Cleansing Section of the City Council’s Health Services Department: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 2001–2002.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (Suppl 1): 7–10. Google Scholar
  • Goosen, J, D M Bowley, E Degiannis, and F Plani
    2003. “Trauma Care Systems in South Africa.” Injury 34 (9): 704–8. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gray, W and J Mendeloff
    2002. “The Declining Effects of OSHA Inspections in Manufacturing, 1979–1998.” Working Paper 9119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gray, W and J Mendeloff
    . 2005. “The Declining Effects of OSHA Inspections of Manufacturing Injuries, 1979–1998.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 58 (4): 571–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Green, F
    2005. Demanding Work. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  • Guimaraes, L B, J L Ribeiro, and J S Renner
    2012. “Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Socio-Technical Intervention in a Brazilian Footwear Company.” Applied Ergonomics 43 (5): 948–57. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Gyekye, S A and S Salminen
    2007. “Workplace Safety Perceptions and Perceived Organizational Support: Do Supportive Perceptions Influence Safety Perceptions?International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 13 (2): 189–200. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Haig, A J, J Im, D Adewole, V Nelson, and B Krabak
    2009. “The Practice of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica: A White Paper or a Black Mark?Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 41 (6): 401–5. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hale, A R, F W Guldenmund, P L van, C. H Loenhout, and J I H Oh
    2010. “Evaluating Safety Management and Culture Interventions to Improve Safety: Effective Intervention Strategies.” Safety Science 48 (8): 1026–35. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hämäläinen, P, J Takala, and K L Saarela
    2006. “Global Estimates of Occupational Accidents.” Safety Science 44 (2): 137–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hämmig, O, M Knecht, T Läubli, and G F Bauer
    2011. “Work-Life Conflict and Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study of an Unexplored Association.” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 12 (1): 60–71. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hanafi, M I, A M Mohamed, M S Kassem, and M Shawki
    2011. “Needlestick Injuries among Health Care Workers of University of Alexandria Hospitals.” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 17 (1): 26–35. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hasle, P and H J Limborg
    2006. “A Review of the Literature on Preventive Occupational Health and Safety Activities in Small Enterprises.” Industrial Health 44 (1): 6–12. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Haviland, A, W R Burns, T Gray, R Ruder, and J Mendeloff
    2010. “What Kinds of Injuries Do OSHA Inspections Prevent?Journal of Safety Research 41 (4): 339–45. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Hayter, S and V Stoevska
    2011. “Social Dialogue Indicators: International Statistical Inquiry 2008–09; Technical Brief.” International Labour Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Headd, B
    2000. “The Characteristics of Small Business Enterprises.” Monthly Labor Review 123 (4): 13–18. Google Scholar
  • HSE (Health and Safety Executive)
    . 2014a. “Health and Safety in Construction in Great Britain, 2014.” HSE, London. Google Scholar
  • HSE (Health and Safety Executive)
    . 2014b. “Health and Safety in Manufacturing in Great Britain, 2014.” HSE, London. Google Scholar
  • Hu, S C, C C Lee, J S Shiao, and Y L Guo
    1998. “Employers’ Awareness and Compliance with Occupational Health and Safety Regulations in Taiwan.” Occupational Medicine (London) 48 (1): 17–22. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Huang, Y H, S K Verma, W R Chang, T K Courtney, and D A Lombardi
    others. 2012. “Management Commitment to Safety vs. Employee Perceived Safety Training and Association with Future Injury.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 47 94–101. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2002. “Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2003. “Code of Practice on Workplace Violence in Services Sectors and Measures to Combat the Phenomenon.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2011a. “Children in Hazardous Work: What We Know, What We Need to Do.” ILO, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2011b. “Promoting Decent Employment for Rural Migrant Workers.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2012a. “Decent Work Country Profile: Zambia.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2012b. “Decent Work Indicators in Africa: A First Assessment Based on National Sources.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2012c. “Global Employment Trends 2012: World Faces a 600 Million Jobs Challenge, Warns ILO.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2012d. “Practices with Good Potential: Towards the Elimination of Hazardous Child Labour.” International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2013a. “ILO Calls for Urgent Global Action to Fight Occupational Diseases.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2013b. “Marking Progress against Child Labour: Global Estimates and Trends 2000–2012.” IPEC, ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2013c. “Rural-Urban Migrants Employed in Domestic Work: Issues and Challenges.”; “Making Decent Work a Reality for Domestic Workers in Africa: A Regional Knowledge Sharing Forum” Paper prepared for ILO fourm 1–5. International Labor Office, Dar es Salaam, May 28–30. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2014a. “ILO-ACTRAV Symposium: Role of Trade Unions in the Promotion of OSH in Asia-Pacific.” ILO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
    . 2014b. “Safety and Health in the Construction Sector: Overcoming the Challenges.” Webinar, ILO, Geneva, November 7. http://www.ilo.org/empent/Eventsandmeetings/WCMS_310993/lang--en/index.htm. Google Scholar
  • ISSA (International Social Security Association)
    . 2014. “Towards a Global Culture of Prevention: Working Conditions Have a Major and Direct Impact on the Health and Well-Being of Workers.” ISSA, Geneva. http://www.issa.int/topics/occupational-risks/introduction. Google Scholar
  • Jaishankar, M, T Tseten, N Anbalagan, B B Mathew, and N K Beeregowda
    2014. “Toxicity, Mechanism, and Health Effects of Some Heavy Metals.” Interdisciplinary Toxicology 7 (2): 60–72. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Jansen, N W H, D C L Mohren, L G van, P. M Amelsvoort, N Janssen, and I Kant
    2010. “Changes in Working Time Arrangements over Time as a Consequence of Work-Family Conflict.” Chronobiology International 27 (5): 1045–61. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Jun, M, W Jingjing, M Collins, W Malei, and S Orlins
    others. 2012. “Sustainable Apparel’s Critical Blind Spot.” Friends of Nature, Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, Green Beagle, Envirofriends, and Nanjing Green Stone, Beijing. Google Scholar
  • Kamchuchat, C, V Chongsuvivatwong, S Oncheunjit, T W Yip, and R Sangthong
    2008. “Workplace Violence Directed at Nursing Staff at a General Hospital in Southern Thailand.” Journal of Occupational Health 50 (2): 201–7. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kauppinen, T, S Uuksulainen, A Saalo, and I Mäkinen
    2013. “Trends of Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agents in Finland in 1950–2020.” Annals of Occupational Hygiene 57 (5): 593–609. Google Scholar
  • Kawakami, T
    2007. “Participatory Approaches to Improving Safety, Health, and Working Conditions in Informal Economy Workplaces: Experiences of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam.” Subregional Office for East Asia, International Labour Organization, Bangkok. Google Scholar
  • Kawakami, T, L Tong, Y Kannitha, and T Sophorn
    2011. “Participatory Approach to Improving Safety, Health, and Working Conditions in Informal Economy Workplaces in Cambodia.” Work 38 (3): 235–40. Google Scholar
  • Kelsh, M A and J D Sahl
    1996. “Sex Differences in Work-Related Injury Rates among Electric Utility Workers.” American Journal of Epidemiology 143 (10): 1050–58. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kim, H C, J Y Min, K B Min, and S G Park
    2009. “Job Strain and the Risk for Occupational Injury in Small- to Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises: A Prospective Study of 1,209 Korean Employees.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52 (4): 322–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Knight, E B, D N Castillo, and L A Layne
    1995. “A Detailed Analysis of Work-Related Injury among Youth Treated in Emergency Departments.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 27 (6): 793–805. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kraemer, B
    2010. “Impact of Economic Crisis on Occupational Health and Safety Management.” Institute of Economic and Social Research (WSI), Dusseldorf. Google Scholar
  • Kubo, J, M R Cullen, L Cantley, M Slade, and B Tessier-Sherman
    others. 2013. “Piecewise Exponential Models to Assess the Influence of Job-Specific Experience on the Hazard of Acute Injury for Hourly Factory Workers.” BMC Medical Research and Methodology 13: 89. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Kubo, J, B A Goldstein, L F Cantley, B Tessier-Sherman, and D Galusha
    others. 2014. “Contribution of Health Status and Prevalent Chronic Disease to Individual Risk for Workplace Injury in the Manufacturing Environment.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 71 (3): 159–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lahiri, S, J Gold, and C Levenstein
    2005. “Net-Cost Model for Workplace Interventions.” Journal of Safety Research 36 (3): 241–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lambert, D M and M C Cooper
    2000. “Issues in Supply Chain Management.” Industrial Marketing Management 29 65–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lapointe, J M, C E P Dionne, C P Brisson, and S P Montreuil
    2009. “Interaction between Postural Risk Factors and Job Strain on Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Users of Video Display Units: A Three-Year Prospective Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 35 (2): 134–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lauver, K J and S W Lester
    2007. “Get Safety Problems to the Surface: Using Human Resource Practices to Improve Injury Reporting.” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 14 (2): 168–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lavack, A M, S L Magnuson, S Deshpande, D Z Basil, and M D Basil
    others. 2008. “Enhancing Occupational Health and Safety in Young Workers: The Role of Social Marketing.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 13 (3): 193–204. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lehtola, M M, R H Rautiainen, L M Day, E Schonstein, and J Suutarinen
    others. 2008. “Effectiveness of Interventions in Preventing Injuries in Agriculture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 34 (5): 327–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Leigh, J P and J P Marcin
    2012. “Workers’ Compensation Benefits and Shifting Costs for Occupational Injury and Illness.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54 (4): 445–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Levine, D I, M. W Toffel, and M S Johnson
    2012. “Randomized Government Safety Inspections Reduce Worker Injuries with No Detectable Job Loss.” Science 336 (6083): 907–11. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lin, Y H, C Y Chen, and J L Luo
    . 2008. “Gender and Age Distribution of Occupational Fatalities in Taiwan.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 40 (4): 1604–10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lin, Y H, C Y Chen, and J L Luo
    . 2011. “Statistical Analysis of Fatalities in Construction Workers.” Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 19 75–85. Google Scholar
  • Lippel, K
    2005. “Precarious Employment and Occupational Health and Safety Regulation in Quebec.” In Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada, edited by
    Vosko, L F
    241–55. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Google Scholar
  • Lipscomb, H J, J Nolan, D Patterson, V Sticca, and D J Myers
    2013. “Safety, Incentives, and the Reporting of Work-Related Injuries among Union Carpenters: ‘You’re Pretty Much Screwed If You Get Hurt at Work.’American Journal of Industrial Medicine 56 (4): 389–99. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Locke, R M
    2013. The Promise and Limits of Private Power: Promoting Labor Standards in a Global Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Locke, R M and M Romis
    2007. “Improving Work Conditions in a Global Supply Chain.” MIT Sloan Management Review 48 (Winter):54–62. Google Scholar
  • Loewenson, R H
    1998. “Health Impact of Occupational Risks in the Informal Sector in Zimbabwe.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 4 (4): 264–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lombardi, D A, S Folkard, J L Willetts, and G S Smith
    2010. “Daily Sleep, Weekly Working Hours, and Risk of Work-Related Injury: U.S. National Health Interview Survey (2004–2008).” Chronobiology International 27 (5): 1013–30. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lundqvist, P and C A Svennefelt
    2012. “Health and Safety Strategy in Swedish Agriculture.” Work 41 (Suppl 1): 5304–7. Google Scholar
  • Lundqvist, P and C A Svennefelt
    . 2014. “Swedish Strategies for Health and Safety in Agriculture: A Coordinated Multiagency Approach.” Work 49 (1): 33–37. Google Scholar
  • Magnavita, N, M Elovainio, I De Nardis, T Heponiemi, and A Bergamaschi
    2011. “Environmental Discomfort and Musculoskeletal Disorders.” Occupational Medicine 61 (3): 196–201. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Manothum, A and J Rukijkanpanich
    2010. “A Participatory Approach to Health Promotion for Informal Sector Workers in Thailand.” Journal of Injury and Violence Research 2 (2): 111–20. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Manothum, A, J Rukijkanpanich, D Thawesaengskulthai, B Thampitakkul, and C Chaikittiporn
    others. 2009. “A Participatory Model for Improving Occupational Health and Safety: Improving Informal Sector Working Conditions in Thailand.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 15 (3): 305–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Marilda, M and C Maciel
    2014. “Strikes in Sugarcane Mills: The Forms of Resistance of Migrant Workers in Brazil.” Paper prepared for the Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference, Maputo, Mozambique, July 19–24. Google Scholar
  • Marras, W S, W G Allread, D L Burr, and F A Fathallah
    2000. “Prospective Validation of a Low-Back Disorder Risk Model and Assessment of Ergonomic Interventions Associated with Manual Materials Handling Tasks.” Ergonomics 43 (11): 1866–86. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Marucci-Wellman, H, T B Leamon, J L Willetts, T T Binh, and N B Diep
    others. 2011. “Occupational Injuries in a Commune in Rural Vietnam Transitioning from Agriculture to New Industries.” American Journal of Public Health 101 (5): 854–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Marucci-Wellman, H, D H Wegman, T B Leamon, T T Binh, and N B Diep
    others. 2013. “Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model.” American Journal of Public Health 103 (11): 1989–96. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mayhew, C and M Quinlan
    1999. “The Effects of Outsourcing on Occupational Health and Safety: A Comparative Study of Factory-Based Workers and Outworkers in the Australian Clothing Industry.” International Journal of Health Services 29 (1): 83–107. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mbaisi, E M, Z Ng’ang’a, P Wanzala, and J Omolo
    2013. “Prevalence and Factors Associated with Percutaneous Injuries and Splash Exposures among Health-Care Workers in a Provincial Hospital, Kenya, 2010.” Pan African Medical Journal 14: 10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • McKay, S, M Craw, and D Chopra
    2006. Migrant Workers in England and Wales: An Assessment of Migrant Worker Health and Safety Risks. London: Health and Safety Executive. Google Scholar
  • McSweeney, K P, B N Craig, J J Congleton, and D Miller
    2002. “Ergonomic Program Effectiveness: Ergonomic and Medical Intervention.” International Journal of Occupational and Safety Ergonomics 8 (4): 433–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mendeloff, J and W B Gray
    2005. “Inside the Black Box: How Do OSHA Inspections Lead to Reductions in Workplace Injuries?Law and Policy 27 (2): 219–37. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mendeloff, J and L Staetsky
    2014. “Occupational Fatality Risks in the United States and the United Kingdom.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57 (1): 4–14. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mischke, C, J H Verbeek, J C Job, T C Morata, and A Alvesalo-Kuusi
    others. 2013. “Occupational Safety and Health Enforcement Tools for Preventing Occupational Diseases and Injuries.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8: CD010183. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mohan, D and R Patel
    1992. “Design of Safer Agricultural Equipment: Application of Ergonomics and Epidemiology.” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 10 (4): 301–9. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Monaghan, P F, C A Bryant, J A Baldwin, Y Zhu, and B Ibrahimou
    others. 2008. “Using Community-Based Prevention Marketing to Improve Farm Worker Safety.” Social Marketing Quarterly 14 (4): 71–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mora, A M, M G Mora-Mora, T Partanen, and C Wesseling
    2011. “Registration of Fatal Occupational Injuries in Costa Rica, 2005–2006.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 17 (3): 243–50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Morassaei, S, F C Breslin, M Shen, and P M Smith
    2013. “Examining Job Tenure and Lost-Time Claim Rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-Year Period, 1999–2008.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 70 (3): 171–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mou, J, S M Griffiths, H Fong, and M G Dawes
    2013. “Health of China’s Rural-Urban Migrants and Their Families: A Review of Literature from 2000 to 2012.” British Medical Bulletin 106 (1): 19–43. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Muntaner, C, O Solar, C Vanroelen, J M Martinez, and M Vergara
    others. 2010. “Unemployment, Informal Work, Precarious Employment, Child Labor, Slavery, and Health Inequalities: Pathways and Mechanisms.” International Journal of Health Services 40 (2): 281–95. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Murad, M K, S Larsen, and H Husum
    2012. “Prehospital Trauma Care Reduces Mortality: Ten-Year Results from a Time-Cohort and Trauma Audit Study in Iraq.” Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation, and Emergency Medicine 20: 13. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Murdoch, H and D Gould
    2004. “Corporate Social Responsibility in China: Mapping the Environment.” Report prepared for the Global Alliance for Workers and Communities, Baltimore, MD. Google Scholar
  • Murray, C J L, K F Ortblad, C Guinovart, S S Lim, and T M Wolock
    others. 2014. “Global, Regional, and National Incidence and Mortality for HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria during 1990–2013: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.” The Lancet 384 (9947): 1005–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Mustard, C
    2007. “Can Social Marketing Campaigns Prevent Workplace Injury and Illness?At Work 49 (Summer): 3. Google Scholar
  • Nakata, A, T Ikeda, M Takahashi, T Haratani, and M Hojou
    others. 2006. “Impact of Psychosocial Job Stress on Non-Fatal Occupational Injuries in Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 49 (8): 658–69. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Nasrullah, M and S Awan
    2012. “Burns and Use of Mirror to Prevent These Injuries among Young and Adult Workers at Hot Clay Ovens, Tandoors: An Innovative, Cost-Effective Solution in a Low-Income Setting.” Burns 38 (7): 1089–90. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • NFIB (National Federation of Independent Business)
    . 2002. “National Small Business Poll.” Workplace Safety 2 (1). Google Scholar
  • Ngai, P and J Chan
    2012. “Global Capital, the State, and Chinese Workers: The Foxconn Experience.” Modern China 38 (4): 383–410. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
    . 2002. “The Changing Organization of Work and the Safety and Health of Working People: Knowledge Gaps and Research Directions.” NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH. Google Scholar
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
    . 2008. “NORA AgFF Sector Council National Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Agenda.” NIOSH, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
    . 2007. “Use of Blunt-Tip Suture Needles to Decrease Percutaneous Injuries to Surgical Personnel.” NIOSH, Cincinatti, OH. Google Scholar
  • Niskanen, T, J Lehtelä, R Ketola, and E Nykyri
    2010. “Results of Finnish National Survey on EU Legislation Concerning Computer Work.” Applied Ergonomics 41 (4): 542–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Niu, S
    2010. “Ergonomics and Occupational Safety and Health: An ILO Perspective.” Applied Ergonomics 41 (6): 744–53. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Noe, R, J Rocha, C Clavel-Arcas, C Aleman, and M E Gonzales
    others. 2004. “Occupational Injuries Identified by an Emergency Department–Based Injury Surveillance System in Nicaragua.” Injury Prevention 10 (4): 227–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Nordander, C, K Ohlsson, I Balogh, G Å Hansson, and A Axmon
    others. 2008. “Gender Differences in Workers with Identical Repetitive Industrial Tasks: Exposure and Musculoskeletal Disorders.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 81 (8): 939–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Nossar, I, R Johnstone, and M Quinlan
    2003. “Regulating Supply-Chains to Address the Occupational Health and Safety Problems Associated with Precarious Employment: The Case of Home-Based Clothing Workers in Australia.” Working Paper 21, Australian National University, Canberra. Google Scholar
  • Noy, Y I, W J Horrey, S M Popkin, S Folkard, and H D Howarth
    others. 2011. “Future Directions in Fatigue and Safety Research.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2): 495–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Nsubuga, F M and M S Jaakkola
    2005. “Needle Stick Injuries among Nurses in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Tropical Medicine and International Health 10 (8): 773–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ntow, W J, H J Gijzen, P Kelderman, and P Drechsel
    2006. “Farmer Perceptions and Pesticide Use Practices in Vegetable Production in Ghana.” Pest Management Science 62 (4): 356–65. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Pai, H C and S Lee
    2011. “Risk Factors for Workplace Violence in Clinical Registered Nurses in Taiwan.” Journal of Clinical Nursing 20 (9–10):1405–12. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Palácios, M, M. L dos, M B Santos, M do Val, M Medina, and Abreu de
    others. 2003. “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector: Country Case Study, Brazil.” World Health Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Palmer, K T, E C Harris, and D Coggon
    2008. “Chronic Health Problems and Risk of Accidental Injury in the Workplace: A Systematic Literature Review.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65 (11): 757–64. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Palmer, K T, E C Harris, C Linaker, M Barker, and W Lawrence
    others. 2012. “Effectiveness of Community- and Workplace-Based Interventions to Manage Musculoskeletal-Related Sickness Absence and Job Loss: A Systematic Review.” Rheumatology 51 (2): 230–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Pehkonen, I, E P Takala, R Ketola, E Viikari-Juntura, and P Leino-Arjas
    others. 2009. “Evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomic Intervention Process in Kitchen Work.” Applied Ergonomics 40 (1): 115–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Pfortmueller, C A, D Kradolfer, M Kunz, B Lehmann, and G Lindner
    others. 2013. “Injuries in Agriculture: Injury Severity and Mortality.” Swiss Medical Weekly 143 : w13846. Google Scholar
  • Phung, D T, H T Nguyen, C Mock, and M Keifer
    2008. “Occupational Injuries Reported in a Population-Based Injury Survey in Vietnam.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 14 (1): 35–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Powers Jr, J R, D E Anmons, and I Brand
    2009. “Machine Safety.” Professional Safety 54 (11): 28–31. Google Scholar
  • Pransky, G S, P J Loisel, and R Anema
    2011. “Work Disability Prevention Research: Current and Future Prospects.” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 21 (3): 287–92. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Premji, S, P Duguay, K Messing, and K Lippel
    2010. “Are Immigrants, Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities Over-Represented in Jobs with a High Level of Compensated Risk? Results from a Montréal, Canada Study Using Census and Workers’ Compensation Data.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53 (9): 875–85. Google Scholar
  • Premji, S, K Lippel, and K Messing
    2008. “‘We Work by the Second!’ Piecework Remuneration and Occupational Health and Safety from an Ethnicity- and Gender-Sensitive Perspective.” Pistes 10 (1): 1–22. Google Scholar
  • Pringle, T E and S D Frost
    2003. “The Absence of Rigor and the Failure of Implementation: Occupational Health and Safety in China.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 9 (4): 309–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • ProcureITfair
    . 2008. “The Dark Side of Cyberspace.” World Economy, Ecology, and Development and Students and Scholars against Corporate Misbehaviour, Berlin. http://www2.weed-online.org/uploads/press_release_dark_side_of_cyberspace.pdf. Google Scholar
  • Pueyo, V, C Toupin, and S Volkoff
    2011. “The Role of Experience in Night Work: Lessons from Two Ergonomic Studies.” Applied Ergonomics 42 (2): 251–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Quinlan, M
    1999. “The Implications of Labour Market Restructuring in Industrialized Societies for Occupational Health and Safety.” Economic and Industrial Democracy 20 (3): 427–60. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Quinlan, M and P Bohle
    2008. “Under Pressure, Out of Control, or Home Alone? Reviewing Research and Policy Debates on the Occupational Health and Safety Effects of Outsourcing and Home-Based Work.” International Journal of Health Services 38 (3): 489–523. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Quinlan, M, C Mayhew, and P Bohle
    2001. “The Global Expansion of Precarious Employment, Work Disorganisation, and Occupational Health: A Review of Recent Research.” International Journal of Health Services 31 (2): 335–414. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Rahman, S
    2004. “Global Shift: Bangladesh Garment Industry in Perspective.” Asian Affairs 26 (1): 75–91. Google Scholar
  • Redinger, C F and S P Levine
    1998. “Development and Evaluation of the Michigan Occupational Health and Safety Management System Assessment Instrument: A Universal OHSMS Performance Measurement Tool.” American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 59 (8): 572–81. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Regoeng, K
    2003. “Safety and Health in the Informal Sector and Small-Scale Industries: The Experience of Botswana.” African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 13 (1): 10–12. Google Scholar
  • Rivoli, P
    2009. The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power, and Politics of World Trade. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Google Scholar
  • Robson, L S, J A Clarke, K Cullen, A Bielecky, and C Severin
    others. 2007. “The Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Interventions: A Systematic Review.” Safety Science 45 (3): 329–53. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Robson, L S, C M Stephenson, P A Schulte, B C Amick, and E L Irvin III
    others. 2012. “A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 38 (3): 193–208. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Rosenstock, L, M Cullen, C A Brodkin, and C A Redlich
    2005. Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, second edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier WB Saunders. Google Scholar
  • Ruff, T
    2010. “Innovative Safety Interventions.” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine 16 (3): 45–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • SafeWork
    . 2012. “Improvement of National Reporting, Data Collection, and Analysis of Occupational Accidents and Diseases.” Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment, International Labour Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Sandoval, M and K A Bjurling
    2014. “Challenging Labor: Working Conditions in the Electronics Industry.” In Lessons for Social Change in the Global Economy: Voices from the Field, edited by
    Garwood, S, S Croeser, and C Yakinthou
    99–124. Plymouth, U.K.: Lexington Books. Google Scholar
  • Schlick, C, M Joachin, L Briceno, and D K Moraga
    2014. “Occupational Injuries among Children and Adolescents in Cusco Province: A Cross-Sectional Study.” BMC Public Health 14: 766. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Schulte, P A, S Pandalai, V Wulsin, and H Chun
    2012. “Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety.” American Journal of Public Health 102 (3): 434–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Shiao, J S, M L McLaws, M H Lin, J Jagger, and C J Chen
    2009. “Chinese EPINet and Recall Rates for Percutaneous Injuries: An Epidemic Proportion of Underreporting in the Taiwan Healthcare System.” Journal of Occupational Health 51 (2): 132–36. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Siddiqi, F and H A Patrinos
    1995. “Child Labor: Issues, Causes, and Interventions.” Human Capital Development and Operations Policy Working Paper 56, World Bank, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • Silverstein, M
    2008. “Meeting the Challenges of an Aging Workforce.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 51 (4): 269–80. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Sinclair, R C, T. R Cunningham, and P P Schulte
    2013. “A Model for Occupational Safety and Health Intervention Diffusion to Small Businesses.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 56 (12): 1442–51. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, P, A Bielecky, M Koehoorn, D Beaton, and S Ibrahim
    others. 2014. “Are Age-Related Differences in the Consequence of Work Injury Greater When Occupational Physical Demands Are High?American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57 (4): 438–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Smith, T, D A Sonnenfeld, and D N Pellow
    2006. Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Google Scholar
  • Smith, W A
    2006. “Social Marketing: An Overview of Approach and Effects.” Injury Prevention 12 (Suppl 1): i38–43. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Soares, M M, K Jacobs, K Olsen, S Legg, and P Hasle
    2012. “How to Use Programme Theory to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Schemes Designed to Improve the Work Environment in Small Businesses.” Work 41 (Suppl 1): 5999–6006. Google Scholar
  • Sorensen, G, P Landsbergis, L Hammer, B C Amick III, and L Linnan
    others. 2011. “Preventing Chronic Disease in the Workplace: A Workshop Report and Recommendations.” American Journal of Public Health 101 (Suppl 1): S196–207. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Sørensen, O H, P Hasle, and E Bach
    2007. “Working in Small Enterprises: Is There a Special Risk?Safety Science 45 (10): 1044–59. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Sripichyakan, K, P Thungpunkum, and B Supavititpatana
    2003. “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector: A Case Study in Thailand.” International Labour Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Steege, A L, S L Baron, S M Marsh, C C Menéndez, and J R Myers
    2014. “Examining Occupational Health and Safety Disparities Using National Data: A Cause for Continuing Concern.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 57 (5): 527–38. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Steinman, S
    2003. “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector: Country Case Study in South Africa.” World Health Organization, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Stocks, S J, R McNamee, H F van der Molen, C Paris, and P Urban
    others. 2015. “Trends in Incidence of Occupational Asthma, Contact Dermatitis, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and Upper-Limb Musculoskeletal Disorders in European Countries from 2000 to 2012.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 72 (4): 294–303. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Strong, L L and F J Zimmerman
    2005. “Occupational Injury and Absence from Work among African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Workers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.” American Journal of Public Health 95 (7): 1226–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Symanski, E, L. L Kupper, and S M Rappaport
    1998. “Comprehensive Evaluation of Long-Term Trends in Occupational Exposure: Part 1. Description of the Database.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55 (5): 300–309. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Taiwo, O A, L F Cantley, M D Slade, K M Pollack, and S Vegso
    others. 2009. “Sex Differences in Injury Patterns among Workers in Heavy Manufacturing.” American Journal of Epidemiology 169 (2): 161–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tak, S and G M Calvert
    2011. “The Estimated National Burden of Physical Ergonomic Hazards among U.S WorkersAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine 54 (5): 395–404. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Takala, J and P Hämäläinen
    2009. “Globalization of Risks.” African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 19 (3): 70–73. Google Scholar
  • Targoutzidi, A, T Koukoulaki, E Schmitz-Felten, K Kuhl, and K M O Hengel
    others. 2013. “The Business Case for Safety and Health at Work: Cost-Benefit Analyses of Interventions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.” European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Luxembourg. Google Scholar
  • Taswell, K and P Wingfield-Digby
    2008. Occupational Injury Statistics from Household Surveys and Establishment Surveys: An ILO Manual on Methods. Geneva: International Labour Organization. Google Scholar
  • Tawatsupa, B, V Yiengprugsawan, T Kjellstrom, J Berecki-Gisolf, and S A Seubsman
    others. 2013. “Association between Heat Stress and Occupational Injury among Thai Workers: Findings of the Thai Cohort Study.” Industrial Health 51 (1): 34–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tessier-Sherman, B, L F Cantley, D Galusha, M D Slade, and O A Taiwo
    others. 2014. “Occupational Injury Risk by Sex in a Manufacturing Cohort.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 71 (9): 605–10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Texido, E and E Warn
    2013. “Migrant Well-Being and Development: South America.” Working Paper for the World Migration Report 2013, International Organization for Migration, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • Tinney, M J, A Chiodo, A Haig, and E Wiredu
    2007. “Medical Rehabilitation in Ghana.” Disability and Rehabilitation 29 (11–12):921–27. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tompa, E, R Dolinschi, C de Oliveira, B C Amick III, and E Irvin
    2010. “A Systematic Review of Workplace Ergonomic Interventions with Economic Analyses.” Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 20 (2): 220–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tompa, E, R Dolinschi, C de Oliveira, and E Irvin
    2009. “A Systematic Review of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions with Economic Analyses.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 51 (9): 1004–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tompa, E, R Dolinschi, and A Laing
    2009. “An Economic Evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomics Process in an Auto Parts Manufacturer.” Journal of Safety Research 40 (1): 41–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tompa, E, R Dolinschi, and J Natale
    2013. “Economic Evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in a Textile Plant.” Applied Ergonomics 44 (3): 480–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Tompa, E, S Trevithick, and C McLeod
    2007. “Systematic Review of the Prevention Incentives of Insurance and Regulatory Mechanisms for Occupational Health and Safety.” Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 33 (2): 85–95. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Törnström, L, J Amprazis, M Christmansson, and J Eklund
    2008. “A Corporate Workplace Model for Ergonomic Assessments and Improvements.” Applied Ergonomics 39 (2): 219–28. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Turgoose, C, L Hall, A Carter, and C Stride
    2006. “Encouraging an Increase in the Employment of Women Returners in Areas of Skill Shortage in Traditionally Male Industries.” Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K. Google Scholar
  • UN DESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs)
    . 2010. The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics. New York: UN DESA. Google Scholar
  • Ustailieva, E, L Eeckelaery, and I Nunes
    2012. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health through the Supply Chain Literature Review. Luxembourg: European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Google Scholar
  • Valcour, M
    2007. “Work-Based Resources as Moderators of the Relationship between Work Hours and Satisfaction with Work-Family Balance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (6): 1512–23. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Vandergrift, J L, J E Gold, A Hanlon, and L Punnett
    2012. “Physical and Psychosocial Ergonomic Risk Factors for Low Back Pain in Automobile Manufacturing Workers.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 69 (1): 29–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • van der Molen, H F, J K Sluiter, C T J Hulshof, P Vink, and M H W Frings-Dresen
    2005. “Effectiveness of Measures and Implementation Strategies in Reducing Physical Work Demands due to Manual Handling at Work.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 31 (Suppl 2):75–87. Google Scholar
  • Van Dongen, H P A, J. A Jr Caldwell, and J. L Caldwell
    2011. “Individual Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Fatigue in the Laboratory and in the Workplace.” In Progress in Brain Research, edited by
    Gerard, A K
    145–53. Amsterdam: Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • van Stolk, C, L Staetsky, E Hassan, and C W Kim
    2012. “Management of Psychosocial Risks at Work: An Analysis of the Findings of the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER).” European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Luxembourg. Google Scholar
  • Verbeek, J and I Ivanov
    2013. “Essential Occupational Safety and Health Interventions for Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Overview of the Evidence.” Safety and Health at Work 4 (2): 77–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Verbeek, J, M Pulliainen, and E Kankaanpää
    2009. “A Systematic Review of Occupational Safety and Health Business Cases.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 35 (6): 403–12. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Vigneswaran, D
    2007. “Special Report: Fact or Fiction? Examining Zimbabwean Cross-Border Migration to South Africa.” Forced Migration Studies Programme and Musina Legal Advice Office, Johannesburg. Google Scholar
  • Vijayvergiya, S C, A K Bohra, and P Jhanwar
    2012. “Pattern of Agriculture-Related Injuries Presented in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South-Eastern Rajasthan.” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 17 (17). Google Scholar
  • Vink, P, E Koningsveld, and A P J F Molenbroek
    2006. “Positive Outcomes of Participatory Ergonomics in Terms of Greater Comfort and Higher Productivity.” Applied Ergonomics 37 (4): 537–46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Virtanen, P, U Janlert, and A Hammarström
    2011. “Exposure to Temporary Employment and Job Insecurity: A Longitudinal Study of the Health Effects.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68 (8): 570–74. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wang, D
    2008. Rural-Urban Migration and Policy Responses in China: Challenges and Options. Bangkok: ILO Asian Regional Programming on Governance of Labour Migration, International Labour Office. Google Scholar
  • Wang, H, K Fennie, G He, J Burgess, and A B Williams
    2003. “A Training Programme for Prevention of Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens: Impact on Knowledge, Behaviour, and Incidence of Needle Stick Injuries among Student Nurses in Changsha, People’s Republic of China.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 41 (2): 187–94. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wang, X, S Wu, Q Song, L A Tse, and I T S Yu
    others. 2011. “Occupational Health and Safety Challenges in China: Focusing on Township-Village Enterprises.” Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 66 (1): 3–11. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Welford, R and S Frost
    2006. “Corporate Social Responsibility in Asian Supply Chains.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 13 (3): 166–76. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2001. Occupational Health: A Manual for Primary Health Care Workers. Geneva: WHO. Google Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2004. Guidelines on the Prevention of Toxic Exposures: Education and Public Awareness Activities. Geneva: International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO. Google Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2006a. “Managing Exits from the Workforce.” In The World Health Report 2006: Working Together for Health, 97–118. Geneva: WHO. Google Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2006b. Safer Access to Pesticides: Community Interventions. Geneva: International Association for Suicide Prevention, WHO. Google Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2011. “Safe Injection Global Network: Summaries of Injection Safety Country Success Stories.” WHO, Geneva. Google Scholar
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
    . 2012. “Connecting Health and Labour: Bringing Together Occupational Health and Primary Care to Improve the Health of Working People.”; “Connecting Health and Labour: What Role for Occupational Health in Primary Health Care,” Executive Summary of the WHO Global Conference, The Hague, November, December 29, 1 2011. Google Scholar
  • Williamson, A, D A Lombardi, S Folkard, J Stutts, and T K Courtney
    others. 2011. “The Link between Fatigue and Safety.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2): 498–515. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wirtz, A, F Nachreiner, and K Rolfes
    2011. “Working on Sundays: Effects on Safety, Health, and Work-Life Balance.” Chronobiology International 28 (4): 361–70. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • World Bank
    . 2014. World Development Indicators: Children at Work. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://wdi.worldbank.org/tables. Google Scholar
  • WTO (World Trade Organization)
    . 2013. International Trade Statistics 2013. Geneva: WTO. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Xia, Q H, Y Jiang, N Yin, J Hu, and C J Niu
    2012. “Injury among Migrant Workers in Changning District, Shanghai, China.” International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 19 (1): 81–85. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Yang, Y H, S H Liou, C J Chen, C Y Yang, and C L Wang
    others. 2007. “The Effectiveness of a Training Program on Reducing Needlestick Injuries/Sharp Object Injuries among Soon Graduate Vocational Nursing School Students in Southern Taiwan.” Journal of Occupational Health 49 (5): 424–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Yessuf Serkalem, S, G Moges Haimanot, and N. Ahmed Ansha
    . 2014. “Determinants of Occupational Injury in Kombolcha Textile Factory, North-East Ethiopia.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 5 (2): 84–93. Google Scholar
  • Yu, W, I T Yu, Z Li, X Wang, and T Sun
    others. 2012. “Work-Related Injuries and Musculoskeletal Disorders among Factory Workers in a Major City of China.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 48 (September):457–63. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Yu, X
    2007. “Impacts of Corporate Code of Conduct on Labor Standards: A Case Study of Reebok’s Athletic Footwear Supplier Factory in China.” Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3): 513–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Zawilla, N H and D Ahmed
    2013. “Sharps Injuries among Health Care Workers in Cairo University Hospitals.” International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 25 (2): 79–92. Google Scholar
  • Zhuang, Z, T J Stobbe, J W Collins, H Hongwei, and G R Hobbs
    2000. “Psychophysical Assessment of Assistive Devices for Transferring Patients/Residents.” Applied Ergonomics 31 (1): 35–44. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Zink, K J, U Steimle, and D Schröder
    2008. “Comprehensive Change Management Concepts: Development of a Participatory Approach.” Applied Ergonomics 39 (4): 527–38. CrossrefGoogle Scholar